Lanner Falcon

Lanner Falcon

Falco biarmicus

Least Concern

The Lanner Falcon, a striking bird of prey, graces the open lands of Africa and parts of Europe and Asia with its swift and agile presence. Known for its grey plumage, distinctive black facial markings, and powerful hunting prowess, this falcon is a marvel in the skies. Its fascinating behavior, from the high-pitched calls to the impressive swooping attacks on its prey, makes the Lanner Falcon a captivating sight in its native habitats.

Appearance and Identification

Males and females have similar plumage

Primary Color


Secondary Colors

White, Brown

Secondary Colors (female)

Secondary Colors (juvenile)

Secondary Colors (seasonal)

Wing Color

Dark Grey

Beak Type


Beak Color


Leg Color


Distinctive Markings

Dark streaks on chest, large black 'moustache'. Females are generally darker than males, and usually around 20% larger.

Tail Description

Long, grey, rounded at end

Size Metrics

39cm to 48cm


88cm to 113cm


430g to 9kg



Click on an image below to see the full-size version

Vocalization and Sounds

Primary Calls

High pitched 'klee-klee-klee'

Call Description

High, repeated, fast and slightly descending

Alarm Calls

Sharp, repeated 'kee-kee-kee' when threatened

Behavior and Social Structure

Daily Activities

Active during the day, hunts in morning and late afternoon

Social Habits

Solitary or in pairs during breeding season

Territorial Behavior

Defends nest site aggressively

Migratory Patterns


Interaction with Other Species

Aggressive towards other birds, especially in defense of nest


Primary Diet

Pigeons, Doves, Quails, Rodents, Insects, Spiders, Bats, Lizards

Feeding Habits

Hunts from high vantage point, chasing prey in flight

Feeding Times

Dawn and late afternoon

Prey Capture Method

Swoops and captures with talons

Diet Variations

Will eat other birds and small mammals if needed

Special Dietary Needs (if any)

None known


Nesting Location

Cliffs, trees, sometimes uses old nests of other large birds

Nest Construction

Simple platform of sticks

Breeding Season

Depends on range. Southern Europe range is Feb to May, North Africa Jan to March, June to Nov in Central and Eastern Africa, and July to August in South Africa.

Number of clutches (per breeding season)


Egg Appearance

Creamy white with brown spots

Egg Size

5cm x 4cm

Clutch Characteristics

2-5 eggs, but usually 3-4 eggs

Incubation Period

32 days

Fledgling Period

1 to 3 months

Parental Care

Both parents care for young, female does most of incubation

Distribution and Habitat

Geographic Range

Africa, southeast Europe and just into Asia

Habitat Description

Open country, semi-desert, savannahs, usually near cliffs for nesting

Elevation Range

Sea level to 2500 meters

Migration Patterns



Desert, Savannah

Climate zones

Temperate, Tropical

Distribution Map

Please note, this range and distribution map is a high-level overview, and doesn't break down into specific regions and areas of the countries.

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