Britain’s commonest woodpecker stands out with its striking pied plumage and red vent.
Great Spotted Woodpecker
22cm to 23cm
34cm to 39cm
The great spotted woodpecker is about the size of a blackbird and distinguishable by its pied black and white plumage and deep red vent area. It has a black crown and nape with two large, white, oval shoulder patches running along the tops of the wings.
The wings are also black, with lines of white spots along the flight feathers. It has a longish tail with chequered black and white tail-sides.
The underparts are white, with a deep red vent that sometimes extends up to the breast. The adult male has a crimson nape patch on the back of the head, which the female lacks. Juveniles are similar to adults but have a red crown.
Adults have a complete moult after the breeding season that lasts for 120 days.
The call is a short, sharp “kick!” When agitated will voice a rapid chattering.
B Whyte, XC560495. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/560495.
Michał Jezierski, XC625182. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/625182.
The great spotted woodpecker searches for insects and beetles in the gaps and cracks of tree bark. Its diet changes depending on the season. It will primarily feed on insects, specifically ants and the larvae of wood-boring beetles in spring and summer.
In autumn and winter, it will mainly eat fruits, seeds and nuts. In winter, it may also visit bird tables. The great spotted woodpecker will also eat the seeds of pinecones and nuts. It will hammer these open using a tree as an anvil.
They generally have a favoured tree that they repeatedly use for this task. Occasionally, the great spotted woodpecker will also raid smaller birds' nests to take eggs or nestlings.
Britain’s commonest woodpecker, it is widely distributed over the UK. Although a few pairs have begun nesting there in recent times, it is not traditionally found in Ireland. It is rare to see them in the far north of Scotland. They are most commonly seen in woodlands, particularly ones with mature broad-leaved trees, but will also frequent large parks and gardens.
The most obvious give away that a great spotted woodpecker is nearby is the repetitive drumming noise it makes as it taps away on hollow trees, which can be heard in woodlands and gardens from early march.
It flies in deep undulations with a straight flight path. When wings are open, it will reveal white barring. Great spotted woodpeckers have favoured trees that they use as “anvils” to extract seeds from pinecones. Piles of empty cones can be found beneath these trees.
The sound of the great spotted woodpecker hammering away at tree trunk can sometimes be heard up to half a mile away.
Male great spotted woodpeckers defend territories and use these to attract females. The male will court the female by putting on a flight display. Pairs are monogamous during the breeding season but will change partners once they have raised their young.
The pair will excavate a nest in a tree by chiselling through the bark, the male doing most of the work. The female will lay a clutch of 4-6 glossy white eggs. The eggs are incubated for around 12 days before hatching.
Adult and Juvenile Great Spotted Woodpecker
Survival rates for the great spotted woodpecker are unknown, but it's estimated that the average lifespan is around 2 years. The maximum known age is 11 years.
The great spotted woodpecker is generally sedentary and can be seen year-round in Britain. It does tend to wander, and this has led to the recent colonisation of Ireland.
There are currently about 140,000 breeding pairs in the UK. It is evaluated as a species of least concern.
There are no specific collective nouns for the Great Spotted Woodpecker. Instead, you can use general Woodpecker collective nouns such as:
Lesser Spotted Woodpecker
There are eleven separate subspecies of the lesser spotted woodpecker. They are spread over a vast area from Europe, across central and southern Russia, into Northern China. This profile is limited to the recently reclassified subspecies of Dryobates minor comminutus (still known as Dendrocopos minor within some authorities) which is a resident of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise known as the British Lesser Spotted Woodpecker.
European Green Woodpecker
Woodpeckers belong to the family Picidae. There are over 230 recognised species of woodpecker from 33 genera, to be found across the world, albeit many species are specific to relatively small, isolated areas. As a family they can be found in almost all regions of the globe apart from Antarctica, Greenland, Madagascar and Australasia. This profile is limited to the 3 species of Picus viridis otherwise known as the Eurasian Green Woodpecker and concentrates on the Picus viridis viridis subspecies, common throughout the United Kingdom, France, Scandinavia and western Russia.
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