American Crow

American Crow

Corvus brachyrhynchos

Least Concern

Famed as the harbinger of folklore and superstitions, the American Crow is a ubiquitous black bird that graces the landscapes of North America. Known for their jet-black feathers, intelligence, and complex social structures, these birds are as intriguing in their behavior as they are in their appearance. Despite their association with urban areas, American Crows display a versatility that allows them to inhabit a variety of environments, making them one of the continent's most adaptable and resilient birds.

Appearance and Identification

Males and females have similar plumage

Primary Color


Primary Color (juvenile)


Secondary Colors


Secondary Colors (female)

Secondary Colors (juvenile)


Secondary Colors (seasonal)

Wing Color


Wing Color (juvenile)


Beak Type

Long and Sharp

Beak Color


Beak Color (juvenile)


Leg Color


Leg Color (juvenile)


Distinctive Markings

All black with glossy feathers

Distinctive Markings (juvenile)

Less glossy than adults

Tail Description


Tail Description (juvenile)

Less fan-shaped

Size Metrics

40cm to 53cm


85cm to 100cm


316g to 620g



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Vocalization and Sounds

Primary Calls

Caw-caw or kraa

Call Description

Distinctive, loud, clear, and can imitate sounds

Alarm Calls

Harsh, high pitched

Behavior and Social Structure

Daily Activities

Foraging in early morning and late afternoon

Social Habits

Highly social, lives in large family groups

Territorial Behavior

Defends nesting territory aggressively

Migratory Patterns

Non-migratory, but may move to food-rich areas in winter

Interaction with Other Species

Friendly with other crows, but aggressive towards predators


Primary Diet

Insects, Crops, Small Mammals, Eggs

Feeding Habits

Scavenging and opportunistic

Feeding Times

Throughout the day

Prey Capture Method

Direct picking and scavenging

Diet Variations

Varies significantly based on season and location

Special Dietary Needs (if any)



Nesting Location

Tall trees

Nest Construction

Sticks, twigs, and lined with soft materials

Breeding Season

April to July

Number of clutches (per breeding season)

Usually one, but sometimes two

Egg Appearance

Blue or greenish with brown markings

Egg Size

Approximately 4 x 3 cm

Clutch Characteristics

3-9 eggs

Incubation Period

18 days

Fledgling Period

20 to 40 days

Parental Care

Both parents care for chicks

Distribution and Habitat

Geographic Range

North America

Habitat Description

Open woods, fields, and urban areas

Elevation Range

Sea level to high mountain areas

Migration Patterns

Non-migratory, but may move to food-rich areas in winter


Forest, Urban

Climate zones


Distribution Map

Please note, this range and distribution map is a high-level overview, and doesn't break down into specific regions and areas of the countries.

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