American Robin

American Robin

Turdus migratorius

Least Concern

Known for its melodious song and iconic orange-red breast, the American Robin is a familiar sight in North America's gardens, parks, and woodlands. As the state bird of Connecticut, Michigan, and Wisconsin, this robust thrush captivates birdwatchers with its lively behavior and striking appearance.

Appearance and Identification

Males and females have similar plumage

Primary Color


Primary Color (juvenile)

Spotted Brown

Secondary Colors

Red, White

Secondary Colors (female)

Secondary Colors (juvenile)

White, Black

Secondary Colors (seasonal)

Wing Color


Wing Color (juvenile)


Beak Type


Beak Color


Beak Color (juvenile)


Leg Color


Leg Color (juvenile)


Distinctive Markings

Orange-red breast and belly

Distinctive Markings (juvenile)

Spotted breast

Tail Description

Black with white corners

Tail Description (juvenile)

Black with white corners

Size Metrics

20cm to 28cm


30cm to 40cm


77g to 85g



Click on an image below to see the full-size version

Vocalization and Sounds

Primary Calls

Cheerful song that sounds like 'cheerily, cheer up, cheer up, cheerily, cheer up'

Call Description

Varied, but often a repeated short whistle

Alarm Calls

Sharp, hissing noise

Behavior and Social Structure

Daily Activities

Active during the day, with peak feeding times at dawn and dusk

Social Habits

Often seen in groups, especially during migration

Territorial Behavior

Defends territory during breeding season

Migratory Patterns

Migrates south in winter, returns north in spring

Interaction with Other Species

Generally sociable, but can be aggressive when defending territory


Primary Diet

Insects, Berries

Feeding Habits

Forages on the ground and in trees

Feeding Times

Dawn and dusk

Prey Capture Method

Runs and stops on the ground to listen for insects

Diet Variations

Diet varies with season and location

Special Dietary Needs (if any)



Nesting Location

In trees, shrubs, or buildings

Nest Construction

Made of grass, twigs, and mud

Breeding Season

Spring to early summer

Number of clutches (per breeding season)

One to three

Egg Appearance

Blue, often without markings

Egg Size

Approximately 2.8cm x 2cm

Clutch Characteristics

3-5 eggs

Incubation Period

12-14 days

Fledgling Period

13-14 days

Parental Care

Both parents feed chicks, with females solely incubating

Distribution and Habitat

Geographic Range

Throughout North America, from Canada to Mexico

Habitat Description

Woodlands, gardens, parks, and fields

Elevation Range

Sea level to 2,000m

Migration Patterns

Migrates south in winter, returns north in spring


Forest, Urban, Grassland

Climate zones


Distribution Map

Please note, this range and distribution map is a high-level overview, and doesn't break down into specific regions and areas of the countries.

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